Other Dangerous Animals

Toadfish

Toadfish Batrachoididae species Toadfish are found in the tropical waters off the coasts of South and Central America. They are between and 25 centimeters (7 to 10 inches) long and have a dull color and large mouths. They bury themselves in the sand and may be easily stepped on. They…
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Other Dangerous Animals

Stonefish

Stonefish Synanceja species Stonefish are found in the tropical waters of the Pacific and Indian oceans. Averaging about 30 centimeters (12 inches) in length, their subdued colors and lumpy shape provide them with exceptional camouflage. When stepped on, the fins in the dorsal spine inflict an extremely painful and sometimes…
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Other Dangerous Animals

Rabbitfish

Rabbitfish Siganidae species Rabbitfish are found predominantly on the reefs in the Pacific and Indian oceans. They average about 30 centimeters (12 inches) long and have very sharp spines in their fins. The spines are venomous and can inflict intense pain.
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Other Dangerous Animals

Stingray

Stingray Dasyatidae species Stingrays inhabit shallow water, especially in the tropics, but in temperate regions as well. All have a distinctive ray shape, but coloration may make them hard to spot unless they are swimming (Stingrays settle into the sand). Shuffling your feet, rather than stepping, to avoid stepping on…
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Weather

Look to the sky for your weather forecast – clouds as foretellers of weather.

Clouds: Foretellers of Weather About 200 years ago an Englishman classified clouds according to what they looked like to a person seeing them from the ground. He grouped them into three classes and gave them Latin names: cirrus, cumulus, and stratus. These three names, alone and combined with other Latin…
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Signaling

How to use signaling techniques in a survival situation – visual and audio communication methods.

Introduction to signaling techniques One of your first concerns when you find yourself in a survival situation is to communicate with your friends or allies. In a survival situation, you must first get your rescuer's attention, then second, send a message your rescuer understands. Some attention-getters are man-made geometric patterns…
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Movement

Water Crossings – how to cross deadly water obstacles in a survival situation.

Expedient Water Crossings In a survival situation, you may have to cross a water obstacle. It may be in the form of a river, a stream, a lake, a bog, quicksand, quagmire, or muskeg. Even in the desert, flash floods occur, making streams an obstacle. Whatever the obstacle, you must know…
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Poisonous Animals

Gila Monster

Gila monster Heloderma suspectum Description: Robust, with a large head and a heavy tail. Its body is covered with beadlike scales. It is capable of storing fat against lean times when food is scarce. Its color is striking in rich blacks laced with yellow or pinkish scales. Characteristics: Not an…
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Poisonous Animals

Yellow Bellied Sea Snake – how to identify, avoid their habitat, and treatment for their bite.

Yellow-bellied sea snake Pelamis platurus Description: Upper part of body is black or dark brown and lower part is bright yellow. Characteristics: A highly venomous snake belonging to the cobra family. This snake is truly of the pelagic species - it never leaves the water to come to shore. It…
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Poisonous Animals

Banded Sea Snake – how to identify, avoid their habitat, and treatment for their bite.

Banded sea snake Laticauda colubrina Description: Smooth-scaled snake that is a pale shade of blue with black bands. Its oarlike tail provides propulsion in swimming. Characteristics: Most active at night, swimming close to shore and at times entering tide pools. Its venom is a very strong neurotoxin. Its victims are…
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Poisonous Animals

Tiger Snake – how to identify, avoid their habitat, and treatment for their bite.

Tiger snake Notechis scutatus Description: Olive to dark brown above with yellowish or olive belly and crossbands. The subspecies in Tasmania and Victoria is uniformly black. Characteristics: It is the most dangerous snake in Australia. It is very common and bites many humans. It has a very potent neurotoxic venom…
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Poisonous Animals

Taipan Snake – how to identify, avoid their habitat, and treatment for their bite.

Taipan Oxyuranus scutellatus Description: Generally uniformly olive or dark brown, with a somewhat darker brown head. Characteristics: Considered one of the most deadly snakes. It has an aggressive disposition. When aroused, it can display a fearsome appearance by flattening its head, raising it off the ground, waving it back and…
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Poisonous Animals

Death Adder – how to identify, avoid their habitat, and treatment for their bite.

Death adder Acanthophis antarcticus Description: Reddish, yellowish, or brown color with distinct dark brown crossbands. The end of its tail is black, ending in a hard spine. Characteristics: When aroused, this highly dangerous snake will flatten its entire body, ready to strike over a short distance. It is nocturnal, hiding…
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Australian Copperhead Snake – how to identify, avoid their habitat, and treatment for their bite.

Australian copperhead Denisonia superba Description: Coloration is reddish brown to dark brown. A few from Queensland are black. Characteristics: Rather sluggish disposition but will bite if stepped on. When angry, rears its head a few inches from the ground with its neck slightly arched. Its venom is neurotoxic. Habitat: Swamps.…
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Poisonous Animals

Wagler’s Pit Viper or Temple Viper snake – how to identify, avoid their habitat, and treatment for their bite.

Wagler's pit viper or temple viper Trimeresurus wagleri Description: Green with white crossbands edged with blue or purple. It has two dorsal lines on both sides of its head. Characteristics: It is also known as the temple viper because certain religious cults have placed venomous snakes in their temples. Bites…
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Poisonous Animals

Saw Scaled Viper snake – how to identify, avoid their habitat, and treatment for their bite.

Saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus Description: Color is light buff with shades of brown, dull red, or gray. Its sides have a white or light-colored pattern. Its head usually has two dark stripes that start behind the eye and extend to the rear. Characteristics: A small but extremely dangerous viper. It…
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Poisonous Animals

Sand Viper snake – how to identify, avoid their habitat, and treatment for their bite.

Sand viper Cerastes vipera Description: Usually uniformly very pallid, with three rows of darker brown spots. Characteristics: A very small desert dweller that can bury itself in the sand during the day's heat. It is nocturnal, coming out at night to feed on lizards and small desert rodents. It has…
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Poisonous Animals

Russell’s Viper snake – how to identify, avoid their habitat, and treatment for their bite.

Russell's viper Vipera russellii Description: Light brown body with three rows of dark brown or black splotches bordered with white or yellow extending its entire length. Characteristics: This dangerous species is abundant over its entire range. It is responsible for more human fatalities than any other venomous snake. It is…
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